in which we get socially rendered

I joined the fediverse in early 2017. If you haven't heard of it, it's a distributed network providing social media type features without any one centralized authority. Users are in control of their data, and anyone can run their own servers with their own rules, including the ability to block all traffic from other servers if they tolerate abusive behavior, etc.

my profile

It took me a while to get to the point where I was comfortable on the Fediverse. I created an account on the oddly-named in April, but it didn't stick immediately. It didn't feel like there was much going on because I hadn't found that many users to follow. After a few months of poking my head around, clicking around a bit, and then forgetting about it for another few weeks, I finally got enough momentum for it to be a compelling place for me, and by November I stopped using my Twitter account altogether. I had felt since the 2016 US election that Twitter had spiraled into a worse and worse condition; the site felt engineered to drive more and more "engagement" at the expense of human misery. So making a clean break dramatically improved my mental well-being.

Even tho it makes a few things more complicated (like finding new users to follow[1]), I deeply appreciate the emphasis on user empowerment that's inherent in the design of the fediverse. One of the cornerstones of this empowerment is the ability to run your own fediverse server, or instance. The most common fediverse server software is Mastodon, which could be considered the flagship of the fediverse. While it's very slick and full-featured, a big downside of Mastodon is that it's difficult to run your own server. Administering it requires running a Ruby on Rails application with Node.js, Postgres, Redis, Nginx, ElasticSearch, and more. For servers which serve a medium-to-large community, this overhead can be justifiable, but it requires a lot of mental energy to get started. There are a lot of places where things could go wrong.

The Pleroma project aims to reduce this by creating a dramatically simpler fediverse server. Running a Pleroma server requires just an Elixir application, a Postgres database, and Nginx to handle TLS. Since Elixir is a lot more efficient than Ruby, it's even possible to run it on a low-powered machine like a Raspberry Pi[2]. I set up my own Pleroma server a few weeks ago at It's running on the Pi in the photo.

a raspberry pi and hard drive

One downside of Pleroma being simpler is that it's really just an API server. All your interaction in the browser goes thru a separate Javascript application called pleroma-fe, and mobile clients like Tusky just hit the JSON API. The API-first design makes sense when you're using the application to browse, post, search, etc, but a big downside is that when you want to share a post with someone else, they have to load all of pleroma-fe just to see it. If you share it with someone who has scripting turned off, then they'll just see a blank white page, which is very unfriendly[3].

I wanted to start using Pleroma, but I wasn't comfortable with this unfriendly behavior. I wanted it so that if I sent a link to a post to a friend, the server would send them the HTML of the post![4] So I took a course of action I never could have taken with a centralized, commercial social network: I fixed it myself. I found that there had been an attempt to start this 8 months ago which had more or less been forgotten, so I used that as my starting point.

Pleroma is written in Elixir, which I had never used before, but I had learned Erlang a few years ago, and many of the core concepts are the same. Since I based my work on the old initial sketch, I was able to make quick progress and add several features, like threading, media, content warnings, and more. I got some really helpful review about how to improve it and test it, and it got merged a couple weeks ago. So now you can see it in action. I'm thankful to the Pleroma developers for their helpful and welcoming attitude.

pleroma screenshot

One of the reasons this is important to me is that I normally use a laptop that's a bit old. But I think it's important for software developers to keep some empathy for users who don't have the latest and greatest hardware. On my laptop, using the pleroma-fe Javascript application to view a post takes eight seconds[5] if you haven't already loaded pleroma-fe (which is the main use case for when you're sharing a link with a friend). If you have it loaded already, it's still 2-3 seconds to load in pleroma-fe. When you have the server generate the HTML, it takes between 200 and 500 milliseconds. But 500ms is nearly a worst-case scenario since it's running on a tiny Raspberry Pi server; on a high-end server it would likely be several times faster.

Running your own fediverse server is still much harder than it should be. I've glossed over the annoyances of Dynamic DNS, port forwarding, and TLS certificates. There's still a lot of opportunity for this to become better. I have a vision of a system where you could sign up for a fediverse server and it would pre-generate an SD card image with Pleroma, Postgres, and Nginx preinstalled and configured with the domain name of your choice, but right now shortcomings in typical consumer-grade routers and consumer ISPs make this impractical. But it's come a long way, and I think it's only going to get better going forward.

If you're interested in running your own fediverse server, you might find helpful, tho it focuses on Mastodon instead of Pleroma. If you're not interested in running your own server, check out for a listing of servers with open registration. There's never been a better time to ditch corporate social media and join the fediverse!

[1] When people get started on the Fediverse, the first question is just "which server should I choose?" As someone who's been around a while, it's tempting for me to say "it doesn't matter as long as you pick a place with a code of conduct that disallows abusive behavior; all the servers talk to each other, so you can follow any user from any server that hasn't de-federated yours." The problem is this isn't quite true due to the bootstrapping problem; when you're trying to find interesting people to follow, you'll have an easier time if you land on a server where people have interests that overlap with yours.

In a distributed system, one server can't know about every single user in the entire network; it's just too big. So server A only knows about users on server B if someone from server A has already made a connection with a user on server B. Once you choose an server, your view of the network will be determined by the sum total of those followed by your server-mates.

[2] Just don't make the same mistake I did and try to run Postgres on an SD card! I tried this initially, and after a few days I started seeing unexplained segmentation fault loops from Postgres. Apparently this is common behavior when a disk failure corrupts the DB's files. Moving everything over to an external USB drive made the problem go away, but it was certainly a surprise. Everything else can run on the SD card but the database.

[3] Note that this problem also occurs with Twitter. Mastodon is slightly better, but it still refuses to show you images or content-warnings without scripting.

[4] You used to be able to take this very basic behavior for granted, but since the arrival of the "single-page app", it has become some kind of ancient forgotten wisdom.

[5] Eight seconds sounds like a very slow application (and it is!) but it's hardly the worst offender for single-page applications. Trello takes 10 seconds, Jira takes 16 seconds, and Slack takes 18 seconds.

« older | 2019-11-24T14:42:41Z